Approach avoidance dating
Correspondence concerning this article should be addressed to Dr. Cohen, Department of Psychology, West Virginia University, Morgantown, West Virginia 26506-6040. Objective To evaluate the construct validity of children's approach-avoidance coping and distress during immunizations, and to examine the instruments used to assess these domains.Methods We used a multitrait-multimethod matrix to examine the validity of the approach-avoidance coping and distress constructs for 62 4- to 6-year-old children receiving immunization injections.Motivation and emotion are usually also held to influence the direction of behavior: determining which particular behaviors will occur.But determining direction is not as unique a function of these variables, given that situational, learning history, and cognitive factors are also held to influence behavior specificity.Selon l’approche sociale de l’évaluation de Beauvois et Dubois, la signification évaluative des traits appartenant à une personne-cible reflète le comportement, lié à ces traits, qu’autrui a à son égard.Dans cet article, on montrera que c’est la signification d’approche ou d’évitement d’autrui liée à ces comportements qui correspond à la signification évaluative des traits.Assessment instruments of both constructs consisted of child, parent, and nurse ratings, and three behavior observation scales.Results Pediatric procedural distress demonstrated adequate convergent and discriminant validity, and it can be assessed in a valid manner.
Conclusions It is possible that children's approach-avoidance coping may be qualitatively different than adult's approach-avoidance.
For example, the emotion-focused versus problem-focused coping paradigm has provided a framework for a large body of assessment and intervention studies (for review, see Compas & Orosan, 1993).
Another key coping dimension is approach-avoidance, which has been examined by a number of researchers (e.g., Compas, Connor, Saltzman, Thomsen, & Wadsworth, 1999; Field, 1992; Miller, Roussi, Caputo, & Kruus, 1995; Peterson, 1989).
Alternatively, other research has suggested that the level of motivation, not the positive or negative valence of emotionality, drives the narrowing of attention.
To date, a shortcoming of the literature is that the relationships between trait motivation and cognition have most commonly been assessed using single measures of both constructs.
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